In 2000, the United Nations created Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 to improve maternal health. Target 5A sought to reduce maternal mortality by three quarters from 1990 to 2015, using two indicators, 5.1 the MMR and 5.2 the proportion of deliveries attended by skilled health personnel (physician, nurse or midwife). Early reports indicated MDG 5 had made the least progress of all MDGs. By the target date of 2015 the MMR had only declined by 45%, from 380 to 210, most of which occurred after 2000. However this improvement occurred across all regions, but the highest MMRs were still in Africa and Asia, although South Asia witnessed the largest fall, from 530 to 190 (64%). The smallest decline was seen in the developed countries, from 26 to 16 (37%). In terms of assisted births, this proportion had risen globally from 59 to 71%. Although the numbers were similar for both developed and developing regions, there were wide variations in the latter from 52% in South Asia to 100% in East Asia. The risks of dying in pregnancy in developing countries remains fourteen times higher than in developed countries, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the MMR is highest, the risk is 175 times higher. In setting the MDG targets, skilled assisted birth was considered a key strategy, but also an indicator of access to care and closely reflect mortality rates. There are also marked differences within regions with a 31% lower rate in rural areas of developing countries (56 vs. 87%), yet there is no difference in East Asia but a 52% difference in Central Africa (32 vs. 84%). With the completion of the MDG campaign in 2015, new targets are being set for 2030 under the Sustainable Development Goals campaign. Maternal health is placed under Goal 3, Health, with the target being to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70. Amongst tools being developed to meet these targets is the WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist.
The authors’ contributions were as follows—ELF and CD: were involved in the acquisition of the data; ELF, CD, SMD, and JF: were responsible for the interpretation of the data; ELF: wrote the paper and had primary responsibility for the content; CD, SMD, WS, and JF: were involved in providing detailed comments and revising the manuscript for important intellectual content; and all authors: were involved in the conception of this review and read and approved the final manuscript.
Postmenopausal bleeding is caused by endometrial cancer only 9% of the time, but 91% of women with endometrial cancer have postmenopausal bleeding. For this reason, it’s always important that women have any unusual or postmenopausal bleeding checked by a doctor to rule out endometrial cancer. An ultrasound and biopsy are typically recommended to determine what is causing the bleeding. (Locked) More »
Although creating financial incentives to lose weight isn't a new idea, now we know cashing in to stay motivated works long-term. In the longest study yet on this topic, Mayo Clinic researchers weighed 100 people monthly for one year, offering half the group $20 per pound lost plus a $20 penalty for every pound gained. Those in the monetary group dropped an average of nine pounds by the end of the year, while non-paid participants shed about two pounds. If you’re ready to gamble away weight, consider sites such as Healthywage, FatBet, or stickK.
Amongst non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working to end child marriage are Girls not Brides, Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and Human Rights Watch (HRW). Although not explicitly included in the original Millennium Development Goals, considerable pressure was applied to include ending child marriage in the successor Sustainable Development Goals adopted in September 2015, where ending this practice by 2030 is a target of SDG 5 Gender Equality (see above). While some progress is being made in reducing child marriage, particularly for girls under fifteen, the prospects are daunting. The indicator for this will be the percentage of women aged 20–24 who were married or in a union before the age of eighteen. Efforts to end child marriage include legislation and ensuring enforcement together with empowering women and girls. To raise awareness, the inaugural UN International Day of the Girl Child[a] in 2012 was dedicated to ending child marriage.
One of the challenges in assessing progress in this area is the number of clinical studies that either do not report the gender of the subjects or lack the statistical power to detect gender differences. These were still issues in 2014, and further compounded by the fact that the majority of animal studies also exclude females or fail to account for differences in sex and gender. for instance despite the higher incidence of depression amongst women, less than half of the animal studies use female animals. Consequently, a number of funding agencies and scientific journals are asking researchers to explicitly address issues of sex and gender in their research.
Food fortification is one of the most cost-effective strategies to improve micronutrient status through a variety of food vehicles, including staples, condiments, and processed foods (63, 64). Common fortifiable micronutrients include iron, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine, although B vitamins and vitamin C are also used as fortificants (33, 64). Food fortification reduced anemia and iron deficiency anemia, and improved vitamin A, folate, niacin, thiamin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, zinc, and iodine status of women of reproductive age and adolescents (13, 46, 61, 63–74). Vitamin D and calcium fortification were found to reduce the risk of osteoporosis among older women, especially for those exposed to inadequate sunlight (63, 64). Biofortification efforts, including those that involved breeding or genetic modification of plants to improve micronutrient content, have also shown improvements in the vitamin A and iron status of women (64, 75). Similar to micronutrient supplementation, women and girls with low micronutrient status were most likely to benefit.
Giving women a smart and organized approach to healthy living, each issue showcases how-to workouts, relationship advice, recipes, affordable products, and much more. A celebrity is featured on each month's cover to showcase women who lead healthy, active lifestyles. Eat This! is a regular feature in Women's Health magazine that shows readers easy tips to replace current meals with healthy alternatives, whether you cook meals at home or grab a bite to eat on the go.
Systematically report and evaluate women's nutrition outcomes in research and program evaluation documents in low- and middle-income countries, including outcomes for adolescents, older women, and mothers (as opposed to reporting on women's nutrition as child nutrition outcomes alone). When possible, report and evaluate differences by setting (e.g., rural compared with urban) and socioeconomic status.